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gulongzhong in xiangfan was located 15 km far from xiangyang, xiangfan city, hubei province. gulongzhong was the place where zhuge liang, the outstanding statesman and the military strategist in the three kingdoms period, lived in seclusion when he was young (17-27 years old). zhuge liang embraced his knees, chanted invocation, tilled in his farmland for 10 years. zhuge liang was born in langya, shandong. when he was young, he lost his parents, and followed his uncle to jingzhou. his uncle died when he was 17 years old. he went to xiangyang longzhong, tilled in the farmland and paid attention to the national events. he was called "wolong".later, liu bei visited thatched cottage for many times. zhuge liang analyzed the situation of three kingdoms comprehensively at that time, and put forward the national strategies. this was the famous "conversation in longzhong".
now gulongzhong was a former residence of zhuge liang as the main scenic spots in the intersection among xiangyang which was hubei historical and cultural city, nanzhang and gucheng. it covered a total area of 209 km2. the scenic area in gulongzhong had been formed for 1700 years. "the hills seemed more elegant than lofty, the steams more sparkling than deep, the land more smooth than spacious, the woods more lush than large." the scenic area was surrounded by mountains, high pines and cypress trees, and the scenery was quite beautiful. the main attractions included zhuge thatched cottage, zhuge liang memorial hall, ancient cypress pavilion, baoxi pavilion, gonggeng tian, xiaohong bridge, hexagonal well, star-gazing platform, etc. in 1994, it was listed as a national 4a level scenic spot by the state council.
zhuge liang was not only a representative of wisdom, but also a diligent and honest prime minister. therefore, people would build temples for him where he passed. there were seven zhuge liang memorial halls in china. there were many memorial halls, so it was difficult to distinguish them. it was a dispute which was the authentic memorial place of zhuge liang from ancient times. among them, the most famous contest for authentic zhuge liang memorial hall took place between gulongzhong in xiangyang of hubei and wolong hillock in nanyang of henan. both of them had a long history. the memorial hall in longzhong was built in the jin dynasty and retained the style of primitive simplicity. the memorial hall in nanyang was built in the tang dynasty, which was even more magnificent. both of them regarded themselves as the place where zhuge liang tilled and contested for the authentic title of zhuge liang memorial hall. therefore, they sued lawsuits.
sangu hall was built in 1720, which is a memorial hall where liu bei visited the thatched cottage for three times and discussed with zhuge liang in longzhong. there were clear ponds, fragrant lotus, flourishing woods and tall bamboo bushes outside it. it was said the ancient cypress used to tie the horse when liu bei visited the thatched cottage for three times still stood in the front of the gate. in the hall, there were many gold plaques and ancient stele, which had high historical research value and calligraphic and artistic research values.
zhuge thatched cottage-zhuge liang lived in longzhong when he was 17-27 years old. the thatched cottage was the place where he met his friends. the story that liu bei visited the thatched cottage for many times and zhuge liang discussed the strategy in lonhzhong took place here.
草庐亭建于清康熙年间，傍依明襄简王墓。此处本是草庐故址，明襄简王朱见淑仰慕隆中山水，于弘治二年（1489）毁草庐建陵墓。清康熙五十九年（1794），郧襄观察使赵宏恩为了纪念诸葛亮于草庐故址修建了此亭。 扇摇战月三分鼎；石黯阴云八阵图。 ——佚名摘赵宏恩诗句题草庐亭 作者简介：此联出自清康熙年间郧襄观察使赵宏恩所写的《隆中武侯草庐诗》。（注）扇摇：羽扇、纶巾是诸葛亮服饰特点，这里代指诸葛亮。战月：混战不息的年代。黯：不明，昏暗。《隆中武侯草庐诗》原文是：“汉季群奸探赤符，独吟梁父独扶孤。扇摇战月三分鼎，石黯阴云八阵图。泣鬼文成何有魏，陨星人去失吞吴。至今不泣英雄气，襄水缠绵晓夜呼。”
the thatched cottage was built in the reign of kangxi in the qing dynasty, and it was adjacent to the tomb of emperor xiangjian in the ming dynasty. this place was the former site of the thatched cottage. zhu jianshu who was emperor xiangjian in the ming dynasty adored the landscape in longzhong, so he ruined the thatched cottage to build an imperial tomb in 1489.in 1794, in memory of zhuge liang, zhao hongen who was the inspector in yunxiang built this pavilion in the former site of thatched cottage. shook a fan to command battles, divided the country into three parts; designed eight tactical arrays in dark and cloudy days.--excerpts from poem of thatched cottage by zhao hongen. this poem was excerpted from poem of zhuge liang memorial hall in longzhong written by zhao hongen who was the inspector in yunxiang in the reign of kangxi in the qing dynasty.(note) shook a fan: a feather fan and a scarf of black silk ribbon was the feature of zhuge liang's clothes, and it referred to zhuge liang here. wartime period: wartime. dark: not bright. poem of zhuge liang memorial hall in longzhong:"traitor ministers in the han dynasty pursued the throne while zhuge liang chanted liangfuyin to support the imperial offspring. he shook a fan to command battles, divided the country into three parts and designed eight tactical arrays in dark and cloudy days. if the goals in memorial before a battle were realized, the state of wei would not exist; when zhuge liang died, there was no condition to conquer the state of wu. the heroic stories were spread where xiang river flew."
wolongshenchu was built in 1729, which was the place where zhuge liang and his friends gathered together. it was surrounded by mountains. pine and cranes always sounded and the yard was quiet and profound. there were animated statues of celebrities such as pang degong, huang chengyan, pang tong, and yound zhuge liang, etc. there were 8 steles inlaid in the both sides of ambulatory. one stele which recorded the issue of repairing in 1729 stood in the middle of the yard.
baoxi pavilion was located in a high hill along longzhong mountain. it was a three-storey hexagon pavilion. it was about 13,3 meters in height and 23.3 in perimeter. it was built by cheng wenbing who was the provincial commander-in-chief in hubei in1888.this pavilion was built for descendants to remind the scene of zhuge liang embraced his knees and chant invocations in longzhong when they came to travel so that they could know that zhuge liang was still concerned about the national issues even when he lived in seclusion.
亭势凌云，抱膝迥留千古胜；台形丽日，观星总括万年奇。 ——佚名题抱膝亭 这副对联是建亭时镌刻在石柱上的，无题款。凌云：直上九霄。何晏<景福殿赋>：“尔乃建凌云之屈盘。”迥：遥远。台：观星台。丽日：朝阳，光彩焕发。联句表明，作者对诸葛亮预言天下三分称奇不已。
the pavilion was so high that it might reach the clouds and baoxi pavilion retained ancient eternal landscape. in the pavilion in a good day, people could feel the events in the history.--a poem by an unknown person in baoxi pavilion. this poem was inscribed on the stone posts when the pavilion was built. it was written by an unknown person. reach the clouds: it was as high as the clouds. ode to jingfu palace by he yan: you would construct a winding building that could reach the clouds. ancient: a long time ago. platform: star-gazing platformsunny day: the sun in the morning represented brilliance. this poem showed that the author was surprised that zhuge liang foresaw the division of three kingdoms.
longzhong academy was built in the period of tianfu in the five dynasties, and it was called learning hall of emperor wuling. in the later yuan dynasty, the academy of guangde temple was moved to longzhong, which was called longzhong academy. longzhong academy was rebuilt in 1987.the main body of longzhong academy was the exhibition hall of zhuge liang and gulongzhong in xiangyang. a plaque with the title of zhuge liang memorial hall written by li xiannian was hung outside the hall. the hall introduced the historical background of zhuge liang and details of visits to the thatched cottage for many times and conservation in longzhong with sand tables, sculptures and sound & photo-electricity forms.
the memorial archway in gulongzhong was built in 1893, which is the landmark in longzhong, it was about 6 meters in height and 10 meters in length. it was a wood-imitation structure made with bluestone. it had four posts and three gates. ten drums fixed these four posts.